The major components of the International Futures (IFs) modeling system are extensively documented in working papers, and documentation of any given component is updated at intervals to reflect additions and refinements as well as connections to other system components. Because of its evolving nature, it is important to note working paper numbers and dates when using and citing model documentation.
Verhagen, W., Bohl, D.K., Cilliers, J., Hughes, B.B., Kwasi, S., McNeil, K., Oosthuizen, M., Picci, L., Yutang Xiong, M., and Moyer, J.D. (2021). "Analysing long-term socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 across diverse African contexts."
Gao, Jing, and Brian C. O'Neill. 2020. "Mapping global urban land for the 21st century with data-driven simulations and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways." Nature Communications 11, 2302 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15788-7