The ICRS Working Paper Series presents timely and ongoing early-stage scholarship to move debate forward by encouraging conversation among scholars, practitioners, and activists. Contributors to the ICRS Working Paper Series include ICRS faculty affiliates, community scholars, and partners engaged in research and projects with ICRS. Our working papers go through an internal review, and authors are eager to take next steps in moving through publication pipelines towards wider dissemination. Working papers will be available for download for free at the links below. The papers will also be available through the Social Science Research Network, a repository for preprints devoted to the rapid dissemination of scholarly research - https://www.ssrn.com/index.cfm/en/.